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Summary of Law and Policy in Some Jurisdictions

Brief summary of the laws and policies related to gender identity and gender reassignment in the UK, EU, USA, Asia, and Australia. Please note that the legal landscape can change, and it’s advisable to consult local authorities or legal experts for the most up-to-date information.

United Kingdom (UK):

  • Gender Recognition Act (2004): Allows individuals to apply for legal recognition of their gender identity, but the process has faced criticism for being complex and intrusive.
  • Equality Act (2010): Provides protection against discrimination based on gender reassignment in various areas, including employment, education, and services.
  • NHS Gender Identity Services: Provides gender-affirming healthcare, including hormone therapy and surgeries, through the National Health Service.

European Union (EU):

  • EU member states have varying laws regarding gender identity and gender reassignment. Some countries, like Sweden and Germany, have comprehensive legal protections and healthcare access, while others may have more limited rights.

United States (USA):

  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964): Federal law that prohibits employment discrimination based on sex, including gender identity and gender reassignment.
  • Title IX (1972): Extends protection against sex-based discrimination to educational institutions, including transgender students.
  • Affordable Care Act (2010): Prohibits discrimination based on gender identity in healthcare.
  • State Laws Vary: Protections and healthcare access vary significantly by state, with some states enacting more comprehensive protections than others.


  • Laws regarding gender identity and gender reassignment vary widely across Asian countries.
  • Some countries, like India and Nepal, have recognised a third gender category and established legal protections.
  • In other countries, transgender individuals may face legal challenges and limited access to gender-affirming healthcare.


  • Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Intersex Status) Act 2013: Added gender identity and intersex status as protected attributes under federal anti-discrimination laws.
  • State and Territory Laws: Each state and territory in Australia has its own anti-discrimination and healthcare laws, which may provide additional protections.

Please keep in mind that the legal landscape is complex and subject to change. Local and regional laws may differ within each of these countries and regions. For detailed information and guidance, it’s advisable to consult legal experts or organisations specialising in LGBTQ+ rights and gender-affirming care in your specific location.

Updated on February 2, 2024

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